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  • The tympanic membrane or “eardrum” is a thin membrane that separates the outer ear canal from the middle and inner ear. The middle ear contains the three tiniest bones in the body, the malleus, incus and stapes, more commonly referred to as the “hammer, anvil and stirrup.” The Eustachian tubes are also located in the middle ear. If the eardrum is perforated or “tears,” bacteria and fungi from the outer ear canal may enter the sensitive middle ear resulting in otitis media or middle ear infection.

  • If a tooth is out of place but it’s not interfering with other teeth, , penetrating the gum line or affecting how your cat eats, a functional bite exists. Repairing a functional bite for cosmetic purposes is not necessary and is considered unethical.

  • Wobbler syndrome is a disease of the neck (the cervical spine) that is seen in large and giant breeds of dog. These dogs experience compression of the spinal cord and the spinal nerve roots, resulting in nervous system deficits and/or neck pain,

  • A wound is an injury causing damage to the skin and/or the underlying tissues. It can be an open wound such as a cut or a closed wound such as a contusion or bruise.