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  • A caesarean section, or C-section, is major surgery performed to remove puppies from the uterus. This is most commonly performed as an emergency procedure when there is difficulty with natural birth.

  • Pet owners may not realize that caffeine can be harmful to their pets. They also may not know that many foods and drinks in their cupboards contain caffeine. This particular chemical boost can be toxic for them.

  • As birds both eat and defecate in their cages, it is essential to keep their cages as clean as possible. The bottom of the cage should be lined with a disposable paper such as newspaper or paper towel that can be thrown away every day. Many different kinds of disinfectants are capable of killing a variety of germs including viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

  • Calcium deposits in the skin have a variety of causes. The deposits are usually of minor significance in the young but may indicate serious disease in some older animals

  • Calcitriol is used to regulate calcium levels in the blood. It is a Vitamin D analogue that promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract. It may be used to treat calcium deficiency associated with hypoparathyroidism. It has also been used to reduce parathyroid hormone concentrations in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

  • Dogs, like people, can develop a variety of bladder and kidney stones. Bladder stones (uroliths or cystic calculi), are rock-like formations of minerals that form in the urinary bladder, and are more common than kidney stones in dogs There may be a large, single stone or a collection of stones that range in size from sand-like grains to gravel.

  • Calcium is a major structural component of bones and teeth, and is an essential dietary mineral. Various forms of calcium are available for supplementation.

  • Calendula (Calendula officinalis), or pot marigold, is very commonly used in herbal medicine as a topical anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. Its soothing effect is due to its ability to scavenge free radicals (which are products of inflammation), preventing them from causing further inflammation, and to its ability to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation (a white blood cell associated with the immune system).

  • Campylobacter infection or Campylobacterosis is a bacterial intestinal infection cased by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter upsaliensis. It is a major cause of human bacterial enteritis although it is considered a normal bacterium in the intestinal tract of many animals and birds.

  • Is there any truth to the old adage, "You can't teach an old dog new tricks?"