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  • The normal lens in the eye of any animal is clear and colorless. A cataract is an increase in the density or opacity of the lens; it is often observed as whiteness within the pupil. Cataracts are often seen in canaries and less often in Amazon Parrots, African Grey Parrots, and Macaws. Cataracts decrease the visual acuity of the bird and may eventually lead to blindness.

  • Inside the eye is a lens that focuses light on the back of the eye, or retina. Vision occurs at the retina. The structure of the eye is similar to a camera, which has a lens to focus light on the film. A cloudy or opaque lens is called a cataract.

  • Many cat owners worry that making their cats stay inside is unnatural and deprives them of their need to roam, explore, and meet other cats. However, in our modern world, the risks of an outdoor life are far greater than the benefits. This handout answers some of the questions you may have about letting your cat spend time outdoors.

  • Periodontal disease is the most common problem affecting cats of all age groups. The very best way to prevent periodontal disease is daily dental home care. However, it is useful to add in effective, evidence-based dental food to provide appropriate daily plaque control.

  • Online shopping for convenience and great prices has quickly become the new normal in today’s consumerism society. Although technology may help us be savvy shoppers, it’s still good to be cautious about what you purchase online, especially when it comes to your pet’s medications.

  • Cephalosporins are a group of antibiotics used to treat infections caused by gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Cephalosporins are most commonly used to treat respiratory, skeletal, urinary, skin and soft tissue infections.

  • Cerebellar hypoplasia is a developmental condition in which the cerebellum of the brain fails to develop properly. The cerebellum is the portion of the brain that controls fine motor skills, balance and coordination. The condition is not painful or contagious.

  • Cerebrospinal fluid (or CSF) is formed within the brain, primarily at specialized sites called the choroid plexuses. CSF is found within the brain and in the space that surrounds both the brain and the spinal cord (this space is called the subarachnoid space).

  • If a disk in the spine degenerates or is damaged, it may bulge and put pressure on the spinal cord or the roots of the spinal nerves. This pressure can cause symptoms ranging from severe pain to weakness to paralysis.

  • Cervical stenosis is also known as cervical vertebral instability, cervical spondylopathy or Wobbler syndrome. It is caused by compression of the spinal cord, usually at the base of the neck.